Psychology (PS)

PS 101 -  Introduction to Psychological Science  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the science of psychology through a survey of theories, methods, and principles of behavior. Students will learn about empirical studies that are central to the various subdisciplines of psychology.

PS 102 -  Colloquium in Psychological Science  
Credits: 1  

A study of selected areas of psychology research and techniques. This course is intended for students who plan to major in psychology, and we strongly encourage majors to complete this course by the end of their sophomore year. Students will read primary source articles and hear first-person accounts by faculty in the Psychology Department (and possibly outside speakers) as an introduction to the theoretical and practical aspects of psychology research. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the various domains of scientific inquiry within the field of psychology, and also the ways in which research techniques define the types of questions that can be asked at a given level of analysis.

Prerequisites: PS 101.   
Note(s): Must be taken S/U.  
PS 202 -  Statistics and Research Methods I  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the research methodologies and statistical analyses used in psychological science. Emphasis will be on experimentation in psychology (designing and conducting experiments, analyzing data, and reporting results through scientific writing).

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101 and placement at the AQR level or completion of an FQR course or QR1.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Writing intensive course for the major. Fulfills Applied QR requirement.  
PS 204 -  Educational Psychology  
Credits: 3  

The application of psychological principles to problems of student learning, student achievement, teaching methods, and educational assessment.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 205 -  Social Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A survey of theory and research on the nature and causes of individual behavior (thoughts, feelings, actions) in social situations.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 206 -  Developmental Psychology  
Credits: 4  

An exploration of how knowledge and abilities change over the human lifespan, from infancy, childhood, and the teenage years, to early and late adulthood. Students will address the major theories that drive the field of developmental psychology, including those centered around understanding how and why we change over time, what information we are born with (and what is learned), and the roles of genes and the environment in shaping development. Students will apply their knowledge both inside and outside the classroom and will be expected to learn about development through observation, empirical journal articles, and their lived experience.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 207 -  Introduction to Child Development  
Credits: 4  

A survey of theory and research related to physical, psychological, and behavioral development from conception through childhood. Students will learn about the process of development as a continuous interaction between biology and experience. Topics include the development of cognition, gender, and self-understanding; socioemotional development; and the role of parenting. Through the service-learning component of the course, students will interact directly with children at one of the two campus preschools on a weekly basis.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 208 -  Adolescent Development  
Credits: 4  

An overview of the theories, research, and issues in the study of human development from early to late adolescence. Students will focus on the biological, cognitive, and social changes during adolescence, the psychosocial issues of adolescence (e.g., identity, achievement, intimacy), and the contexts in which adolescent development occurs (e.g., families, peer groups, schools). Students will explore these topics through a combination of lecture, empirical and theoretical readings, case studies of the lives of adolescents, and service-learning experience.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 209 -  Adult Development  
Credits: 4  

Psychological aspects of human growth and function from maturity to senescence, with consideration of research procedures and problems as well as recent findings and relevant theory. Through the service-learning component of the course, students will directly interact with mature adults at one of the several local centers on a weekly basis, furthering their knowledge of adult development and aging through their own experience.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 210 -  Personality  
Credits: 4  

Considers major theories of personality to gain an understanding of how genetic and environmental factors interact to influence human behavior.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 211 -  Applied Psychology  
Credits: 4  

An application of principles of psychology to issues in education, industry, environmental initiatives, health, consumer culture, and the law. Students will have an introductory "hands-on" experience in applied research. Goals of the course include familiarization with methods of applied work and psychology's contributions to the above-listed issues; ability to use social science methods to critically evaluate various types of social initiatives; an appreciation of what social science can (and cannot) contribute in applied settings; and a grasp of the ethical issues involved in such work.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 212A -  Themes in Contemporary Psychology  
Credits: 3  

Introductory exploration of selected themes in contemporary psychology with special attention to major trends of theoretical interest and research activity. Such themes might include decision-making, narratives in psychology, health psychology, environmental psychology.

Note(s): At the time of registration check specific course listings for the upcoming term as well as the necessary prerequisites for the courses offered. This course may be repeated for credit with focus on a different theme.  
PS 212B -  Themes in Contemporary Psychology  
Credits: 4  

Introductory exploration of selected themes in contemporary psychology with special attention to major trends of theoretical interest and research activity. Such themes might include decision-making, narratives in psychology, health psychology, environmental psychology.

Note(s): At the time of registration check specific course listings for the upcoming term as well as the necessary prerequisites for the courses offered. This course may be repeated for credit with focus on a different theme.  
PS 213 -  Hormones and Behavior  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the study of how the endocrine system coordinates psychological and behavioral components of reproduction, aggression, attachment, hunger, and cognition. Considers empirical research findings based on numerous species (humans, nonhuman primates, birds, rodents, etc.). To help illustrate hormone-behavior relationships, several in-class experiments are conducted using both animal and human subjects.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 214 -  Psychological Disorders  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the history and study of psychological disorders (e.g., substance use disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders) with an emphasis on understanding the development of disorders, diagnostic issues, and symptoms.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 215 -  Social Identity & Interaction  
Credits: 4  

A study of how people interact with others from different social identity groups, how social identity shapes people’s judgments of themselves, how social identity is signaled or concealed, and how these factors have consequences for prejudice, stereotypes, social stigma, support for social rights, and social equality. This course examines the psychological science behind how people’s social identities and group affiliations influence how they perceive and treat others – and how they understand power and justice – in the United States.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and SSP 100.   
Note(s): Fulfills Bridge Experience requirement.  
PS 218 -  Cognition  
Credits: 4  

The scientific study of the ways in which people encode, integrate, transform, and use information derived from their firsthand experiences and more indirect ones. While studying theories, methodologies, and research findings that are the hallmarks of cognitive psychology, students expand their understanding of these cognitive processes. The processes discussed include attention, consciousness, imagination, remembering, forgetting (and its failure), knowledge representation, narrative processing, reasoning, and decision-making. Students learn about the brain's role by examining the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive processes. Particular attention is given to writing as a way of discovering, integrating, and extending knowledge about the cognitive processes that are examined.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 219 -  Health Psychology  
Credits: 3  

A study of the relationships between psychological factors and well-being using bio-psychosocial perspectives. This multidisciplinary approach integrates knowledge from physiology, psychobiology, personality, social psychology, and sociology to understand health, illness, and well-being. The primary objective of this course is to familiarize students with the conceptual basis, research methods, and research findings in the field of health psychology.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 221 -  Clinical Psychopharmacology  
Credits: 3  

An examination of the therapeutic effect of drugs used to treat mental disorders from a neuropharmacological perspective. Students will study fundamental aspects of synaptic function and psychopharmacology (pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics), as well as experimental methods used to develop and test novel pharmaceuticals. Students will also explore specific mental illnesses, associated neurochemical pathophysiology, and current drug treatment strategies. Students will become familiar with the primary syndromes used to diagnose each disorder, the neurochemical pathways implicated in psychopathology, and specific (receptor-mediated) mechanisms of drug activity.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 223 -  Evolutionary Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A survey of theory and research on human behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Students will gain an understanding of evolutionary theory, from its Darwinian inception to the modern synthesis, and develop the ability to apply evolutionary thinking to provide ultimate explanations for human behavior. Students will learn about the lives of ancestral humans, including challenges of survival, mating, parenting, and group living, how our psychology evolved to facilitate successful navigation of these challenges, and how we can observe evolved psychology in the modern environment. The origin of literature, religion, and art will also be explored.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 225 -  Perception  
Credits: 3  

The study of the way in which people use sensory input to identify and interpret information in the world. The course will examine contributions of sensory, neural, and cognitive factors to perceptual experience. Discussions will cover general perceptual principles, but will emphasize visual and auditory processes.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 231 -  Neuropsychology  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the relationship between the brain and mind through the assessment of human patients with brain damage. This focus will show how scientists are better able to understand components of the mind (i.e., processes related to attention, perception, cognition, personality, emotion, memory, language, consciousness) and behavior, and how this information can be used to refine theories of psychological and neural functioning. A case-study approach of humans with brain damage will be adopted in this course.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 232 -  Introduction to Cognitive Science  
Credits: 3  

What are the critical components of "mind," "consciousness," "knowledge," and "thought"? Students will survey philosophical, psychological, neuroscientific, anthropological, and computational approaches to understanding this question-an interdisciplinary field of study known as cognitive science. Cognitive Science defines itself through the types of questions it asks and the methods used to answer them. One fundamental approach to developing our hypotheses and theories involves the development of models testable representations of these processes and ideas. These models are tested and refined against the array of low-level physiological processes, individual behaviors, and group and global systems that define our cognitive world. As we iterate this modeling-testing loop, we hope to come closer to understanding the foundations of thought and mind. Students will also survey the fields associated with cognitive science and discover how its methodologies interconnect them. Traditional computational and mental-representation models as well as a few alternative propositions involving dynamical systems will be examined through rigorous study. As a result, students will gain tools to broaden and inform their inquiry in any field that focuses on the mind and thought.

Prerequisites: QR1.  
PS 233 -  Cognitive Neuroscience  
Credits: 4  

A survey of the history, methods, and research in cognitive neuroscience, the study of the biological processes that underpin cognition. The course will examine topics such as the history and philosophy of cognitive neuroscience; methods, including electroencephalography; functional magnetic resonance imaging; and transcranial magnetic stimulation as well as research on perception, attention, memory, language, music, and consciousness. Recommended preparation for upper-level courses in psychology and neuroscience that engage with the links between mind and brain.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101.  
PS 234 -  Developmental Disabilities and Autism  
Credits: 4  

A clinical overview of the most common developmental disabilities and autism spectrum disorders. Students will gain an understanding of each disorder (its etiology, behavioral presentation, and appropriate interventions) while studying the role of historical perspectives and current research in the assessment and treatment of developmental disabilities. Students will develop skills in functional assessment and behavior support planning through the use of case studies and their own observations.  Students will work together to develop and implement a weeklong awareness event on campus focused on Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Prerequisites: PS 101.  
PS 251 -  Special Seminar Series in Psychology  
Credits: 1,2  

A topical seminar, lab, or discussion group that may be offered as an extension to a particular course in psychology or as a free-standing experience (e.g., a film series with focus on contemporary psychological issues). Discussion may focus on additional topics as a follow-up from a previous learning experience or may provide exploration of a new topic not covered in a traditional departmental offering. The frequency with which the seminar meets will vary depending on the goal of the seminar. When offered as an extension to another course, the combined credits may not exceed 5 credits.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or permission of instructor.  
PS 252 -  Psychology at the Tang  
Credits: 4  

An interdisciplinary investigation into the ways in which scientists and artists contend with power, priviledge, and inequality within the contemporary United States. In this Bridge Experience course, students will consider the ways in which artistic and scientific approaches can work in harmony to illuminate shared underlying themes, as well as the ways in which there may be interesting tensions between these two forms. To do so, students will carefully analyze both compelling psychological research (from empirical articles) and art found at the Tang Teaching Museum, culminating in a student-curated exhibition. May be repeated for credit with a different topic.

Prerequisites: PS 101.   
Note(s): Fulfills Bridge Experience requirement.  
PS 261 -  Educating Parents in the Digital Age  
Credits: 1  

The creation and maintenance of a public multi-media web resource about child development. Students will determine the mission of the website, its format, and its content. Students will research the types of blogs and websites that parents read; have conversations with caregivers, parents, and educators to discover what people want to know about developmental psychology; and speak with developmental psychologists about what they would like parents and the public to know.  Students can (and are encouraged to!) take this course multiple times. Each semester, we will add content and brainstorm new ways to make our site better.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 206  
PS 275 -  Exploratory Research Experience in Psychology  
Credits: 1  

An introductory exploration of conducting research in psychology. Its purpose is to provide students with an interactive research experience in a particular laboratory or clinical setting. Students will experience various aspects of the research process, e.g., the planning and implementation of research, protocols for data collection, and testing of hypotheses. Exposure to research methodologies within a particular area of psychological inquiry should enhance the student’s ability for more independent work.

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.   
Note(s): The experience is open to non-majors. Must be taken S/U.  
PS 276 -  Exploratory Research Experience in Psychology  
Credits: 1  

An introductory exploration of conducting research in psychology. Its purpose is to provide students with an interactive research experience in a particular laboratory or clinical setting. Students will experience various aspects of the research process, e.g., the planning and implementation of research, protocols for data collection, and testing of hypotheses. Exposure to research methodologies within a particular area of psychological inquiry should enhance the student’s ability for more independent work.

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor.   
Note(s): The experience is open to non-majors. Must be taken S/U.  
PS 303 -  Research Methods 2: Intermediate Statistics  
Credits: 4  

A further exploration into the research methodologies and statistical analyses used in different areas of psychological science. Emphasis will be on additional methods used in psychological research (designing and conducting experiments, analyzing data, and reporting results through scientific writing).

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as writing intensive course for the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 304 -  Research Methods 2: Physiological Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A theoretical and empirical introduction to behavioral neuroscience. Emphasis will be on animal models used to understand various psychological processes, including anxiety, drug reward, and spatial cognition. Laboratory sessions are used to test the effect of various pharmacological compounds on animal behavior. Students are expected to interact with rodent subjects. Extensive scientific writing is a critical aspect of the course.

Prerequisites: NS 101 and PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as writing intensive course for the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 305 -  Research Methods 2: Cognitive Development  
Credits: 4  

A theoretical and empirical exploration of cognitive development. Emphasis will be on understanding the developmental origins of language, spatial representations, concepts, mathematics, biological understanding, and social reasoning. Emphasis will also be on connecting cutting-edge empirical scientific research on cognitive development to the larger philosophical debates from which this field emerged. Readings will come from the fields of philosophy, theoretical psychology, and empirical psychology. Laboratory sessions will be used to conduct and analyze original research on cognitive development, and to learn advanced statistical techniques.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as a writing intensive course in the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 307 -  Advanced Personality  
Credits: 3  

A detailed examination of factors that influence personality development. Attention is devoted toward understanding how different aspects of human personality can account for the development of various social institutions. The development and evaluation of hypotheses to understand personality processes, and strategies to induce change are also considered.

Prerequisites: PS 101, PS 210, and one Research Methods II course.  
PS 310 -  Applied Behavior Analysis: Principles and Practice of Operant Conditioning  
Credits: 4  

Why do we behave the way we do? How do we clinically address behaviors that are interfering with a person's functioning? Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the use of classical behavior modification techniques to modify problem behaviors. All behavior serves a purpose and through the understanding of the “function” of the behavior you can design more effective behavior modification techniques. In this course students will examine the theories, techniques, and science behind these practices and how they have been applied to a variety of different treatment modalities (clinical practice, schools, athletics, animal training).

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 102.  
PS 311 -  Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  
Credits: 4  

An advanced study in cognitive-behavioral theory, research findings, and clinical application. Students will learn, discuss, and actually practice CBT techniques. Students will choose their own treatment manual to read, act out, and apply in mock sessions. Real therapist training materials and scientific papers on CBT will be read and discussed.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202. PS 214 is not required but is highly recommended. Students must be adequately prepared to read and discuss empirical journal articles.  
PS 312A -  Advanced Study of Major Issues of Psychology  
Credits: 3  

A critical examination of fundamental areas of controversy in current theories, research findings, and applications of psychology. Such topics might include consciousness, autobiographical memory, or nonverbal behavior.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): At the time of registration check specific course listings for the upcoming term as well as the necessary prerequisites for the courses offered. This course may be repeated for credit with focus on a different issue.  
PS 312B -  Advanced Study of Major Issues of Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A critical examination of fundamental areas of controversy in current theories, research findings, and applications of psychology. Such topics might include consciousness, autobiographical memory, or nonverbal behavior.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): At the time of registration check specific course listings for the upcoming term as well as the necessary prerequisites for the courses offered. This course may be repeated for credit with focus on a different issue.  
PS 313 -  Psychology of Gender  
Credits: 4  

An examination of the ways in which gender shapes the lives of women and men. Using an interdisciplinary, scientific approach, students will explore psychological research and review empirical findings that test beliefs about gender in our society. Topics include: cultural and evolutionary accounts for gendered behavior; observed (and perceived) sex differences and similarities in abilities and personality; gender socialization in childhood; backlash against stereotype violators; the influence of gender roles and stereotypes on discrimination; work and parenthood; portrayals of men and women in the media; gender in romantic and sexual relationships; and sexual aggression and violence.

Prerequisites: PS 202.  
PS 314 -  Research Methods 2: Psychology of Reading  
Credits: 4  

The cognitive and neuroscientific underpinnings of the ability to read. Students will investigate experimental techniques such as masked priming, eye-tracking, and fMRI, sentence and discourse comprehension, neural bases of normal skilled reading and reading disorders, and models of visual word recognition and eye-movement control.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as a writing intensive course in the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 315 -  Clinical Psychology  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the science and practice of clinical psychology. Topics include clinical training, diagnosis, psychotherapy, outcome research, and ethics. Students will learn basic clinical interviewing skills, learn to critically evaluate therapeutic practices, participate in a mock clinical interview, and develop a treatment plan based on best practices.

Prerequisites: PS 101, PS 202, and PS 214.  
PS 317 -  Psychological Testing  
Credits: 3  

An introduction to the history, theory, administration, and interpretation of psychological tests, including a focus on the field of psychometrics and its role in psychological testing. Students will review the role and relevance of tests evaluating constructs such as intelligence, achievement, psychiatric symptoms, and personality.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.  
PS 318H -  Advanced Statistics in Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A study of advanced techniques and controversial issues in experimental design and analysis. The course will emphasize computer analysis of a range of experimental designs.

Prerequisites: PS 202 and one Research Methods II course.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture, two hours of lab per week.  
PS 320 -  Research Methods 2: Social Psychology  
Credits: 4  

A study of the processes underlying everyday social behavior and thought.  Students will use scientific research methods to investigate social behavior such as group decision-making, prejudice and bias, unconscious thinking, motivation, and humor enjoyment.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as a writing intensive course in the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 321 -  Motivation and Emotion  
Credits: 4  

An examination of the principal constructs employed in theories of motivation and emotion. Students will review the current status of both biologically based and psychologically based theories, using primary sources. Additionally, students will plan and carry out a project that applies a theory of motivation or emotion in a field setting.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and one Research Methods II course.  
PS 322 -  Positive Psychology  
Credits: 4  

An examination of psychological well-being. What factors contribute to happiness? Why do some people thrive, even in the midst of life's most difficult circumstances? Students will read and discuss scientific articles related to happiness, forgiveness, self-compassion, mindfulness, gratitude, flow, creativity, and meaning. Students will design their own positive psychology research study and will have the opportunity to apply the course concepts to their own lives.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.   
PS 323 -  Psycholinguistics  
Credits: 4  

An examination of the psychological mechanisms necessary to learn, comprehend, and produce both spoken and written language. The course addresses questions such as: How do people acquire the ability to comprehend language, speak, read, and write? What are the cognitive processes involved in everyday language usage? What is the brain's role in language and what can we learn about language from patients with brain injury? These questions and more are addressed while investigating the psychology of language from a scientific perspective, looking at what psychological research can tell us about human language acquisition, comprehension, and production.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101 and PS 202.  
PS 325 -  Research Methods 2: Perception  
Credits: 4  

The study of the way in which people use sensory input to identify and interpret information in the world. The course will examine contributions of sensory, neural, and cognitive factors to perceptual experience. Discussions will cover general perceptual principles, but will emphasize visual and auditory processes.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101; and PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as writing intensive course for the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 328 -  Seminar in Clinical Psychology: Anxiety and Its Disorders  
Credits: 3  

A study of the nature of anxiety and anxiety disorders, taught as a seminar modeled on graduate-level work. Students focus on the etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment of anxiety disorders in adults with an emphasis on clinical applications and psychological/cognitive-behavioral approaches to conceptualizations and therapies.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202; PS 214 is recommended but not required.  
PS 329 -  Clinical Psychology Field Experience  
Credits: 4  

Professional experience working 10 hours per week at a local mental health/human service agency. Students will receive on-site supervision from a professional at the agency and one hour of group supervision each week from a Skidmore clinical psychology professor. Field placements are limited, and students will be selected through a competitive application process.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 214 and permission of instructor.   
Note(s): Must be taken S/U.  
PS 330 -  Research Methods 2: Memory  
Credits: 4  

A study of the research methods employed to investigate cognitive processes recruited in memory creation and maintenance. Students will learn to design and implement experimental techniques to assess memory, covering topics such as attention, emotion and personal associations. Students carry out a research project and write papers conforming to APA guidelines.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): Three hours of lecture and two hours of lab per week. Meets the Research Methods II requirement and counts as a writing intensive course in the major. Fulfills QR2 and Natural Sciences requirements; fulfills Scientific Inquiry requirement.  
PS 332 -  Seminar in Cross-Cultural Psychology  
Credits: 4  

An introduction to the main topics of cross-cultural psychology in such areas as sensation and perception, motivation and emotion, memory and cognition, self-identity, verbal and nonverbal communication, acculturation and social and moral development. Students will gain a greater awareness of their own cultural attitudes and beliefs and comprehend the experiences of others who are from cultures other than their own.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.   
Note(s): Fulfills Cultural Diversity requirement.  
PS 333 -  Sleep and Dreams  
Credits: 4  

An examination of the little-understood phenomena of sleeping and dreaming. We will consider theoretical explanations and empirical findings from neuroscience and psychology. Students also will investigate a particular aspect of sleeping and/or dreaming through designing and carrying out projects.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.  
PS 334 -  Psychology of Religion  
Credits: 3  

An introduction to the scientific study of religious phenomena. Topics include religion across the lifespan, death anxiety, near-death experiences, religious conversions, cults, mystical religious experiences, prayer, forgiveness, and religious coping. Students will develop a proposal for a study of a topic of interest.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and PS 202.  
PS 335 -  Psychology of Race  
Credits: 4  

A scientific exploration of the study of race and diversity in the United States as they relate to individual and group attitudes, cognitions, and behaviors. Students will focus on social psychological perspectives on these topics, including how individual worldviews and motivations influence the way people see and define race and diversity; how different models of diversity influence intergroup relations and diversity goals separately for majority and minority group members; how multiracial populations and intersectional identities influence theories and models of race and diversity; and how the psychologically-based causes, correlates, and consequences of stereotypes, discrimination, and prejudice operate across domains (e. g., academia, the workplace, health). Students will also engage in learning activities designed to help students meaningfully connect course content to life outside the classroom (e.g., other coursework, current events).

Prerequisites: PS 202 and SSP 100.   
Note(s): Fulfills Cultural Diversity requirement; fulfills Bridge Experience requirement.  
PS 336 -  Music Cognition  
Credits: 4  

An exploration of the psychological and neuroscientific research in music cognition. Students will investigate music and language, musical emotion, neurocognitive processing of music, pitch and time, perception and production, music's psychological function, and evolutionary accounts of music-making.

Prerequisites: PS 202.   
Note(s): Although not required, it is highly recommended that students take PS 233: Cognitive Neuroscience or PS 218: Cognition prior to taking this course.  
PS 337 -  Cross-Cultural Development  
Credits: 4  

An examination of child development from a cross-cultural perspective, with a special focus on understanding how cultural norms, psychological research, and power structures impact: clinical and medical practices, parenting/babyhood practices, notions of education/learning/work, and the development of cognitive, “moral,” and social processes. In addition to gaining an understanding of the current state of empirical psychological research on cross-cultural development, students will gain the ability to apply insights about cross-cultural development from anthropology, sociology, and history to the study of psychology. More generally, students will question and critique the development of policies and norms related to children, and will ask questions like: Who gets to decide what “normal,” “healthy,” and “good” childhood environments look like? In what ways do powerful individuals and institutions police, restrict, and limit child development? What are the consequences for violating cultural norms during development, and can we seek justice for those who have been wronged? In this way, students apply what they have learned about cross-cultural development to critical questions of power and justice in contemporary America.

Prerequisites: PS 202 and SSP 100.   
Note(s): Fulfills Cultural Diversity requirement; fulfills Bridge Experience requirement.  
PS 338 -  Language Development  
Credits: 4  

Current theories surrounding how humans learn their first language. The primary focus is on typically developing children during the first few years of life. Topics span from how infants learn to recognize the sounds in their language to how they come to understand and produce sentences.

Prerequisites: PS 202PS 206 is recommended but not required .  
PS 339 -  Psychology of Bodies and Self  
Credits: 4  

All humans have bodies -- it’s difficult to imagine human existence in the absence of a body. This class focuses on understanding how the properties of our bodies shape our identities. In other words: in what ways do our bodies make us who we are? This course will address the roles of skin, muscle, genitalia, DNA, fat, limbs, and brain in constructing our many identities. We will learn about philosophical, psychological, and theoretical perspectives on the relationship between bodies and identities. By focusing on bodies in transition (i.e. bodies that are intentionally or unintentionally changed), we will interrogate the question: when and how do the properties of our bodies impact our identities? We will also ask about the intersection of power, identities, and bodies in contemporary America: how do systems of power and oppression shape the ways that we view and psychologically study ourselves and our bodies? Given that there is systematic body-and identity-based oppression, what does justice look like from a practical, psychological, and scientific perspective?

Prerequisites: PS 202 and SSP 100.   
Note(s): Fulfills Bridge Experience requirement.  
PS 341 -  Seminar in Cognitive Neuroscience: Left Brain/Right Brain  
Credits: 3  

A discussion based study of hemispheric specialization for cognitive functioning (including perception, attention, memory, creativity, emotional processing, and language) from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Drawing on experimental psychology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, brain imaging, and computer modeling, students will study the gap between biological processes of the central nervous system and the processes of the mind.

Prerequisites: PS 101 or NS 101; PS 202; PS 231 is recommended.    
PS 351 -  Special Advanced Seminar Series in Psychology  
Credits: 1,2  

A topical seminar, lab, or discussion group that may be offered as an extension to a particular course in psychology or as a free-standing experience (e.g., a film series with focus on contemporary psychological issues). Discussion may focus on additional topics as a follow-up from a previous learning experience or may provide exploration of a new topic not covered in a traditional departmental offering. The frequency with which the seminar meets will vary depending on the goal of the seminar. When offered as an extension to another course, the combined credits may not exceed 5 credits.

Prerequisites: PS 202 or permission of instructor.  
PS 352A -  Meeting of the Minds  
Credits: 1  

An exploration of how sub-disciplines of psychology approach scientific problems from different perspectives and how careful analysis of topics at the intersection of multiple research areas can generate compelling new questions.  This special topics course examines areas of overlap and/or disagreement across different psychological sub-disciplines/theoretical  orientations/ methodological perspectives and is co-taught by two professors.  Faculty will model the ways in which scholars can work together (and even disagree!) productively, and how intellectual collaboration is often the engine of scientific discovery. The frequency with which the seminar meets (i.e., once a week for the full semester or twice a week for half the semester) will vary depending on the goals of the seminar.

Prerequisites: PS 202   
PS 352B -  Meeting of the Minds  
Credits: 2  

An exploration of how sub-disciplines of psychology approach scientific problems from different perspectives and how careful analysis of topics at the intersection of multiple research areas can generate compelling new questions.  This special topics course examines areas of overlap and/or disagreement across different psychological sub-disciplines/theoretical  orientations/ methodological perspectives and is co-taught by two professors.  Faculty will model the ways in which scholars can work together (and even disagree!) productively, and how intellectual collaboration is often the engine of scientific discovery. The frequency with which the seminar meets (i.e., once a week for the full semester or twice a week for half the semester) will vary depending on the goals of the seminar.

Prerequisites: PS 202  
PS 365 -  Rethinking Psychology  
Credits: 1  

Have you ever wanted to reexamine a psychological topic in light of all that you have learned across courses, disciplines, and life experiences since arriving at Skidmore? Have you ever considered how psychological knowledge might change if research studies were more inclusive of historically underrepresented groups? Have you ever thought about how we can improve on experimental methodology, theory generation, and ethics in psychological science? Have you ever wondered what it might be like to teach a college-level psychology course? This course will provide an opportunity to engage with all of these questions and will serve as a “coda” to your psychology major at Skidmore. Pre-requisite: PS 101, 202, and one Research Methods II course.

Note(s): Fulfills Senior Experience Coda requirement.  
PS 371A-D -  Independent Study in Psychology  
Credits: 1-4  

A directed study in a specialized topic. Each student will work with an individual faculty member to develop a plan of study (i.e., establishing goals, selecting readings, and designing assignments).

Prerequisites: PS 101 and permission of instructor.   
Note(s): This one-semester experience may be repeated for credit. The number of credits assigned to an independent study is directly related to the number of hours per week, and follows the Skidmore College guidelines for credit: 3 credits: no fewer than nine hours per week; 4 credits: no fewer than 12 hours per week.  
PS 373A-D -  Research Independent Study in Psychology  
Credits: 1-4  

An intensive research experience in a particular laboratory or field setting, emphasizing further development of research skills within a particular area psychological inquiry. Each student will work with an individual faculty member on various aspects of the research process including the design and the implementation of a research project, data analyses and interpretation, and scientific writing.

Prerequisites: PS 101 and permission of instructor.   
Note(s): This one-semester experience may be repeated for credit. The number of credits assigned to an independent study is directly related to the number of hours per week, and follows the Skidmore College guidelines for credit: 3 credits: no fewer than nine hours per week; 4 credits: no fewer than 12 hours per week.  
PS 375 -  Senior Research Project I  
Credits: 4  

Students will work with an individual faculty member to develop a major research project. This development will include the conceptualization of a topic, review of the scientific literature, the learning of any necessary research techniques, the execution of any preliminary research, and the submission of a written research proposal to the faculty supervisor. Each student will make an oral presentation of the proposal to other senior thesis students as well as the psychology faculty at the end of the semester. Students will also attend weekly one-hour seminar meetings to discuss with the faculty member coordinating the program as well as other student participants the design of their research project. Discussion topics will include preparation of materials for the Institutional Review Board, students' perspectives on their literature reviews, discussion of writing and revising, and preparation for thesis proposal defenses.

Prerequisites: PS 202 and one Research Methods II course; students must also receive permission of instructor.   
Note(s): This course may not be taken concurrently with PS 378.  
PS 376 -  Senior Research Project II  
Credits: 4  

Students will work with an individual faculty member to complete a major research project developed in Senior Research Project I. A final project will be submitted in thesis form to the faculty supervisor as well as the faculty research coordinator for the program. This final project must be submitted at least two weeks before the end of the term. Students are also expected to present their research findings to the Psychology faculty and student participants in the program. In preparation for the completion of this thesis work, students will also attend weekly one-hour seminar meetings to discuss issues related to their research (e.g., problems in data collection, options for data analysis, etc.), to critique one another's thesis drafts, and to prepare for formal presentations at the end of the semester.

Prerequisites: PS 375 and permission of instructor.   
Note(s): This course may not be taken concurrently with PS 378.  
PS 378 -  Senior Seminar  
Credits: 4  

Students work with course instructor to complete a major, written project. The project can be a synthesis of the literature in a particular topic area of psychology, or an original theoretical formulation. The final project should demonstrate a conceptual integration of the material, and should demonstrate both originality and independence of work. In addition to the written project, each student will make an oral presentation summarizing the project. The written version of the project will be submitted at least two weeks before the end of the fall semester.

Prerequisites: permission of instructor and completion of one Research Methods II course.   
Note(s): May not be taken concurrently with PS 375.  
PS 399A-D -  Professional Internship in Psychology  
Credits: 1-4  

Professional experience at the advanced level for juniors and seniors. This experience may include work-study projects in one of several professional settings, including mental hospitals, nursing homes, schools, developmental centers, advertising agencies, laboratories, and communication agencies.

Prerequisites: five courses in psychology (specified by the faculty according to the nature of the internship). Requires faculty sponsorship and department approval.   
Note(s): The number of credits assigned to an internship directly relates to the number of hours per week, and follows the Skidmore College guidelines for minimal contact hours. Must be taken S/U.  
PS 3001 -  300 Level Elective  
Credits: 3